Facility Maintenance Decisions

High-Level Decisions

Successful roofing management relies on a strategy that features planning, regular inspections and timely follow-through

By Jeff Evans   Roofing

Rare is the organization in which roofing funds flow like water. Most maintenance and engineering managers face the quandary of too many problem roofs for the money available. The problem might well be a lack of money, but it could it also be the lack of a coherent roof management plan.

Most managers in commercial and institutional facilities agree, in theory, that regular inspections are an essential part of a roof asset management program. They also would recognize and agree with the basic roof management tenet that regular inspections and routine maintenance reduce ownership costs, reduce leak frequency and severity, extend roof life, and reduce management inefficiencies.

But, in practice, by the time many organizations think about starting a roof management plan, they need a roof replacement program. The opportunities to maintain and repair have been supplanted by the obligation to fund and implement roof replacements.

If organizations can extend the life of each roof under management one year, they break even on the roof management plan costs. If they can extend each roof by two or three years, the plan can reduce roof expenditures by a multiple of its costs.

So why don’t all organizations have a viable roof inspection and maintenance plan? Is it inertia or a fear of the unknown? It’s hard to fathom. What is certain, however, is that some plans never get started. Also certain is that even a minimal plan is better than no plan. The best advice for managers is to get started now.

Getting Started

The temptation in beginning a roofing program is to jump right in and start filling pitch pans. This would be a definite improvement over no roof management effort at all, however, but the best first step is for managers to take an inventory of roofs under their care. This inventory begins with developing a historical file for each roof that includes these pieces of information about each roof:

  • date of installation
  • installing contractor
  • roof system manufacturer
  • existence and duration of warranties
  • type of roof membrane, insulation and roof deck
  • leak history, including any warranty claims and their resolution
  • repair history, dates, type and cost of repairs.

Roof Assessment

With all of the roof information in place, the next step is to get up on the roofs and perform a condition assessment. No roof can be managed appropriately without first knowing the roof’s history and then understanding its current condition. Managers can best obtain current roof condition by scheduling roof inspections or surveys.

The person performing visual roof surveys should be familiar with the design, installation, repair and types of failure specific to the roofing system being surveyed. Whether surveys are done by in-house staff or contracted to a consultant depends on the technical competence and availability of resources. In-house personnel who have had training in roof inspection, diagnosis and repair can perform limited overview surveys.

A roof survey should include: an examination of roof membrane, flashings, sheet metal flashings, drains, gutters, etc.; an evaluation of observed conditions that might impact the roof system’s long-term performance; documentation of deficiencies requiring corrective action; and development of long-range preventive maintenance (PM) needs.

Survey documentation should consist of a written report or checklist, photographs, and notes on a roof plan indicating conditions observed. The roof plan should supply enough data to facilitate performance of the required repairs. Several checklists are available for documenting conditions observed during a survey, but these checklists sometimes fall short of conveying all conditions assessed over the long term.

Survey Frequency

How often an organization needs to perform various tasks associated with a roof PM program depends on the roof’s age and condition, environmental influences, rooftop traffic, occupancy sensitivity, size and roof accessibility. The following guidelines can help determine the frequency of the tasks:

  • Perform comprehensive visual roof surveys semi-annually. But for large roof areas in good condition with limited rooftop traffic, managers can perform a comprehensive survey each spring. A limited overview survey in the fall can ensure integrity prior to winter weather.
  • Conduct warranty surveys before a contractor or manufacturer’s warranty expires. This allows the repair of any covered deficiency before the expiration of the contractor or manufacturer’s possible monetary obligations.
  • Perform monthly housekeeping surveys on most roof areas. Surveys help identify potential problems. In some cases, managers might need to increase the frequency of surveys. For example, during the fall, roofs adjacent to trees might require that crews remove vegetation weekly.
  • Schedule corrective steps or repairs soon after the survey. Delaying corrective repairs allows small, isolated deficiencies to become major problems that can be expensive and difficult to repair.
  • Conduct roof moisture surveys on a three-year cycle unless specific conditions exist that warrant more frequent surveys or moisture is present in the roof system. Perform the first or baseline survey before a contractor’s warranty expires so repairs can be covered under the warranty terms. In any case, the first roof-moisture survey should be performed within the first two to three years after installation.

Formulate a Plan

The information gathered during an inspection does no good if it sits on a shelf accumulating dust. Managers need to study the information, as it will help identify opportunities to make repairs, conduct maintenance or anticipate re-roofing. Formulating a plan will help managers communicate better with upper management, roofing contractors and maintenance staff.

Perhaps the most important goal of all is to avoid having a roof replaced before its design life is reached or having to perform emergency repairs at the least opportune time. To avoid letting a good roof sit neglected and doomed to early failure, managers can begin the effort with a well-devised roof inspection and maintenance plan.

Jeff Evans is vice president of Benchmark Inc. — www.benchmark-inc.com — a provider of professional roof consulting services headquartered in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. He is a registered roof consultant (RRC) and has 23 years of experience in the roofing industry.

Different Roofs, Different Concerns

Many common elements exist between various generic roof types. Each type has distinct aging characteristics and develops different defects over time. The defects an inspector finds in built-up roofing are different from those found in an EPDM rubber roof. Listed below are several common conditions that affect a roof’s long-term performance, regardless of roof type, as well as differences to look for in the three most common roof systems:

  • Underfilled pitch pans
  • Clogged or restricted drainage
  • Debris or sharp objects
  • Chemical exhaust, particularly oil and solvents
  • Collapsed, wet or damaged roof insulation
  • Insufficient fastening of sheet metal copings, gravel stops and counterflashings
  • Poorly sealed flashing terminations.
  • Loss of felt surfacing, gravel, aluminum coating or asphalt surfacing
  • Felt erosion or loss of plies
  • Membrane aging, such as alligatoring and brittleness
  • Membrane damage, such as punctures and cuts
  • Membrane defects such as blisters, splits and ridges
  • Flashings aging, splits, open laps, racheting and slippage
  • Poorly sealed flashing terminations.
  • Blisters, especially at laps
  • Loss of surfacing, especially SBS modified bitumen membranes
  • Open laps
  • End lap shrinkage
  • Membrane aging, surface crazing and pitting
  • Membrane damage, such as punctures and cuts
  • Flashing defects, blisters, open laps and slippage.
  • Open membrane laps
  • Membrane damage, punctures and cuts
  • Inadequate attachment, ballast or membrane displacement, shrinkage and wind damage
  • Membrane aging, crazing, stiffening and brittleness
  • Flashing defects, open laps and loss of attachment.

All low-sloped roofs

Built-up roofs

Modified bitumen roofs

Single-ply membrane

— Jeff Evans

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  posted on 2/1/2002   Article Use Policy

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