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August 9, 2017 - Grounds Management
Facility managers with institutional and commercial facilities are often responsible for maintenance of parking structures. Made of concrete and steel, these multi-level hubs provide visitors and their vehicles with shelter from the elements and often provide access to housing or office space. But protecting the structures themselves from the constant onslaught of environmental stressors and wear-and-tear comes with its own set of challenges.
Vehicles regularly entering parking garages leave behind water, oil and muck, not to mention salt and deicers tracked in during winter that can corrode a structure's concrete and steel support system.
An ineffective maintenance routine on a parking structure can quickly lead to costly repairs and restorations that can be disruptive to tenants and cause unexpected costs and safety concerns.
"Essentially, the goal of parking garage maintenance is to keep water and corrosives away from the garage's reinforcing steel," says Carter Pogue, sales/project manager with Western Specialty Contractors. "The damaging and compounding cycle of water infiltration never gets better on its own, and the longer that warning signs are ignored, the more serious and costly the repairs can become."
All types of parking structures — the three most common types being double-tee precast, conventional, and post-tensioned — are subject to deterioration. Western Specialty Contractors' experts have identified five key indicators that a parking garage needs preventive maintenance:
Water leakage. Leaking water is a clear sign a parking garage needs repair. The longer the condition is left unattended, the more expensive the consequences can become. Three indicators of water leaks are: exposed metals rusting, rust stains along the walls, and efflorescence.
Ponding water. Water and parking garages do not mix well, so standing water is obviously an issue. A simple drain installation or protective waterproof membrane will prevent future, larger problems.
Expansion joint failure. Failed expansion joints provide another avenue for water to penetrate and reach the reinforcing steel and T-to-T connector plates. Repairing expansion joints is much simpler than resolving issues created by corroded reinforcing steel and connector plates. Detecting expansion joint problems and reacting quickly to make repairs will be beneficial in the long run. Wear at the T-to-T joints, expansion joint failure, and flange connection deterioration are commonly found in double-tee precast structures.
Delamination, spalling, and horizontal and vertical cracks. Concrete is bound to crack at some locations. Delaminated or spalled concrete occurs when a piece of concrete detaches from the structure. Along with delaminating and spalling, vertical and horizontal cracks in the concrete also represent threatening areas of weakness. These issues are problematic because they can lead to structural damage by allowing water to reach the garage's reinforcing steel. This type of damage is commonly seen on post-tensioned and conventional cast-in-place concrete parking garages.
Exposed rebar. If reinforcing steel can be seen, there is a problem that deserves swift attention. When rebar is introduced to water, it corrodes and expands up to eight times its original size. This condition usually is the result of a crack in the concrete that allows water to travel through and reach the rebar. The force of the expanding rebar causes more damage to the concrete around it, which creates greater access for water and more corrosion. It is imperative to stop this compounding cycle as soon as possible.
An experienced concrete maintenance and restoration specialist, such as Western Specialty Contractors, is recommended to identify specific problem areas and hazards within the garage and to recommend a repair plan and maintenance schedule that will:
• delay or avoid costly restoration
• decrease liabilities
• retain ideal parking volume and rates
• adhere to local permitting guidelines
• maintain the property's value.
"Recent strides in technology have provided new and effective ways to extend the life of parking structures," Pogue says. "These advances consist of conventional means, including better coatings and sealants, as well as all new methods of handling challenging concrete repairs."
Parking structure restoration services can include:
• concrete repair and replacement
• structural repairs
• expansion joint installation/replacement
• clear sealer application
• deck coating installation
• post-tension repair for strand and button-head systems
• epoxy injection
• chemical grout injection
• fiber-reinforced polymer systems
• cathodic protection
• shotcrete — spray applied concrete
• sacrificial galvanic anodes.
About Western Specialty Contractors: Family-owned and operated for more than 100 years, Western Specialty Contractors is the nation’s largest specialty contractor in masonry and concrete restoration, waterproofing and specialty roofing. Western offers a nationwide network of expertise that building owners, engineers, architects and property managers can count on to develop cost-effective, corrective measures that can add years of useful life to a variety of structures. These include industrial, commercial, healthcare, historic, educational and government buildings, parking structures and sports stadiums. Western is headquartered in St. Louis and has more than 30 branch offices nationwide and employs more than 1,200 professionals who offer the best, time-tested techniques and innovative technology. For more information about Western Specialty Contractors, visit www.westernspecialtycontractors.com.