4 FM quick reads on hvac
1. Portable Cooling: Preparation and Planning
This is Chris Matt, Managing Editor of Print & E-Media with Maintenance Solutions magazine. Today's tip is developing a plan for portable cooling.
For managers to realize the full benefits of a temporary cooling system, they must carefully evaluate their buildings' requirements and select the system that most closely meets the needs of their facilities. Planning is the key, but it is difficult, at best, to plan once the cooling service has failed.
The first step in the process is to identify the most critical areas within a facility that would be most adversely affected by the loss of cooling. Not all areas are equally important. Cooling might be necessary to keep computers and other critical electronic equipment operating, or it might provide comfort only. Managers need to determine the impact a loss of cooling services would have on operations.
Next, determine the extent of any potential disruption. Would it be localized in isolated areas within a building, or would it be building-wide? Managers can address localized, temporary cooling requirements through the use of spot, portable systems. More widespread outages might require a building-wide solution.
Another option — one that would not require additional equipment — is to determine if it is possible to temporarily relocate the operations affected by the outage to another location within the facility.
Managers need to evaluate a number of factors before selecting a temporary or portable cooling system. One of the most important steps in this phase is to determine the capacity of the required cooling system. Specify a system that is too small, and the area might not cool properly. Specify one that is too large, and the result will be inefficient operation, frequent cycling of the unit, excessive noise, and improper humidity control.
Managers can develop quick estimates of cooling loads by looking at the power requirements of all equipment operating in the space. They also can ensure more accurate load calculations by having engineers perform the calculations.
2. Water Treatment Demand Planning and Ongoing Attention
Today's tip comes from James Piper, contributing editor for Building Operating Management: Water treatment programs require careful planning and ongoing attention if they are to provide the benefits that they are capable of providing.
Experienced facility managers realize the importance of water treatment programs for HVAC systems. Although water treatment programs are unglamorous, they help ensure that HVAC systems operate at peak efficiency by keeping heat transfer surfaces clean and free of scale. They also help to maximize the life of the equipment and enhance safety, protecting both staff and equipment.
Water treatment might seem to be nothing more than adding chemicals to water. But in reality effective water treatment must be part of a program.
For example, water treatment efforts will require installation of specialized equipment, generally including chemical feeders, monitoring sensors and sampling ports. Once this equipment has been installed, it should be monitored. Water samples must be taken and analyzed, typically weekly, to determine the contaminants that are present in the water and their concentrations. And adjustments will have to be made in the program to match changing water conditions.
Facilities have the option of implementing the program in-house or contracting all or part of the program out to firms that specialize in water treatment. If in-house personnel are used, it is essential that they be fully trained in all of the procedures involved in the water treatment program, including the safe handling of chemicals used in the program. If the program is contracted out, it is important that a qualified contractor be selected, one that is experienced in working with systems similar to the ones in the facility. Regardless of the method of implementation, the staff responsible for water treatment should be monitored and supported by the facility manager to ensure that proper procedures are being followed.
3. Water Safety Plan Is Needed to Combat Legionella
Today's tip: Legionnaire's disease is still a threat, and facility managers should have a plan to combat it.
Legionnaire's Disease does not make headlines the way it used to. But that does not mean the pneumonia caused by the bacteria, legionella, is no longer a risk. According to the Centers for Disease Control, between 8,000 and 10,000 people wind up in the hospital every year because of legionella. And those numbers may well underestimate the extent of the problem, says CDC, because many cases are either not diagnosed or not reported. Summer is the biggest problem time, but the illness can strike 12 months of the year. And Legionnaire's Disease is a serious condition, leading to death in 5 to 30 percent of cases, according to CDC.
People contract the disease by inhaling a mist or vapor contaminated with legionella. Sources of the problem include plumbing systems, cooling towers, humidifiers, whirlpools, fountains and mist machines.
The only way to determine if legionella is present is to test the water, says Matthew Frieje, president of HC Info. The bacteria can be present in well-maintained systems, not just systems that are poorly maintained, he says.
Facility managers should take steps to ensure that their facilities' water systems do not become breeding grounds for legionella. The World Health Organization recommends developing a water safety plan to evaluate risks of exposure to legionella. A water safety plan assesses hazards and ranks them in order of priority. It also calls for ongoing operational monitoring of control measures, such as the use of biocides, the prevention of stagnant water and the keeping of water temperature outside of the range in which legionella grows the best, to the extent possible. Legionella grows best in water temperatures between 20 C (68 F) and 50 C (122 F)
When seeking expertise to help prevent Legionnaire's disease, facility managers should look for unbiased advice, rather than relying on manufacturers selling products designed to help control legionella.
4. Focus on Energy Efficiency: Sub-Metering Strategies
This is Chris Matt, Managing Editor - Print & E-Media with Maintenance Solutions magazine. Today's tip is using sub-metering to manage energy use.
The first step in sifting through sub-metering technology is to identify the organization's essential energy-management needs and determine the way the facility can address these needs with a data-collection system.
The type of energy information many facilities require often is beyond the capability of one master utility meter. Sub-metering systems, combined with useable and comprehensive data-collection systems, can give managers much more detailed load profiling. Managers can use the collected data to:
• understand energy-use patterns and trends
• implement demand response and control to avoid costly ratchet and peak utility charges
• profile an entire facility for demand-management and load-shedding measures
• locate true spare capacity within the electrical system.
In its simplest form, sub-metering involves installing separate meters downstream of the primary billing meter. These meters monitor specific points in the system. In campus settings, for example, sub-meters might be set up on a building-by-building basis to allocate energy costs among departments. In single buildings, managers can group specific system circuits and monitor the distribution system to minimize the number of sub-meters.
Some sub-meters can transfer data, while others also can record and store interval data. Other intelligent-breaker technologies allow system operators to control individual circuits in a distribution system separately, as well as monitor the system's data separately.
At a minimum, managers should install sub-meters on lighting, HVAC, alternative-energy systems, and other key pieces of equipment, which will produce the most valuable trending data. Managers can reconfigure and display this data to the building occupants and visitors with a energy dashboard that presents the information in a way they understand.
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