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4  FM quick reads on fault detection and diagnostics

1. Fault Detection And Diagnostics (FDD) Shows Promising Results


Today's tip from Building Operating Management comes from Jim Sinopoli of Smart Buildings LLC. Fault detection and diagnostics shows promising results at Microsoft.

Microsoft's main corporate campus provides a look at what the future may hold for facility managers looking to mine the mountain of data available from most buildings. Microsoft is using a software analytics tool known as fault detection and diagnostics to help meet a corporate mandate related to energy and sustainability. Not only did Microsoft discover faults within their HVAC system they were not aware of, the software application also allowed their engineers to save significant time in addressing operational issues. The tool both identifies faults and also provides information about corrective action.

What's more, the fault detection and diagnostics tool has the capability to monetize faults. After the tool identifies a fault, it estimates the duration of the problem and calculates the cost of the uncorrected fault, typically based on wasted energy consumption. For example, the leakage of an outdoor damper might cost $500 per year. Monetizing faults allows Microsoft to give priority to tackling the most costly problems. In addition, this tool compresses Microsoft's typical 5-year campus retro-commissioning cycle to just one year. Annual energy cost savings for Microsoft from automated fault detection alone may exceed $1 million.

Microsoft is in the vanguard of a movement that is likely to transform the way buildings are managed. Software analytics promise to become a critical tool for facility managers to keep buildings operating efficiently. A variety of factors are driving the move to analytics. For one thing, buildings are becoming increasingly complex, and the introduction of new systems is making them even more complex. That complexity is changing the skill sets and expertise required to operate buildings. What's more, nearly everyone who occupies, manages or owns a building is focused on energy and sustainability.


2.  Three Reasons Can Justify New Building Automation Technology

Today's tip from Building Operating Management comes from Rita Tatum, contributing editor: Three reasons may justify an investment in upgraded building automation or energy management systems.

The past few years have seen a substantial amount of innovation in building automation and energy management systems. In some cases, the innovations have come from suppliers of the automation systems; in other cases, the new applications have been developed by third party software developers.

Three economic forces are moving more buildings into modern building automation or energy management operations, says Jack Althoff, owner of ProjX, Inc.

First, tenant comfort can be significantly improved, because building management can monitor building components more thoroughly than older building automation or energy management applications could.

"With today's technology, you really can see everything you need to see at a high level to ensure your building's occupants are comfortable," says Althoff.

The second force is control of utility costs. Facility managers can react quickly to address usage anomalies. "So if tenants add a new lighting system that causes their usage to jump by 1,000 kilowatts, you know immediately," says Althoff. "You have time to see if you can do something to correct the matter or possibly adjust the contract with them for the additional usage."

The third motivator is manpower savings. Alarms and sensors keep building operators aware of what's happening via the building automation or energy management network, before staff are dispatched.

Soft diagnostics, built into today's controls, identify potential glitches before they become problems. Sometimes the diagnostics can correct the problem directly. But even when the controller cannot fix the problem, it can note early warning signs. "For example, the controls will note the water pressure is dropping before the basement is flooded," says Althoff.

This has been a Building Operating Management Tip of the Day. Thanks for listening.

3.  Analytics, Fault Detection Improve Building Automation Capabilities

Today's tip from Building Operating Management comes from Rita Tatum, contributing editor: Today, detailed analytics and fault detection systems are starting to offer the potential for improving the performance of building automation systems.

New technology starting to be deployed today offers the ability to predict when something is going wrong, before systems stop working altogether. "The BAS operator can't just keep his or her eye on the chiller and big air handling units anymore," says Robert G. Knight, senior associate with Environmental Systems Design. "Now, the facility manager's got fountain pumps and pool chemical controllers and kitchen grease precipitators, all revealing their every inner parameter to the network. So analytics are really becoming necessary to filter through that noise and help direct the operator's attention to the problem."

The diagnostics come in many capabilities and price ranges. One software application for HVAC systems uses fault-detection diagnostics (FDD). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed FDD some years ago. The software evaluates equipment relationships, such as the chiller's connection to the air handler and the air handler's reliance on variable air volume devices, to diagnose a problem in performance. Using predictive analytics rules, the software analyzes and identifies faults or conditions where HVAC is not running optimally and alerts the BAS/EMS front end station.

"Some of this software really takes on not only DDCs but also systems normally considered outside BAS/EMS monitoring," says Jim Sinopoli, managing principal, Smart Buildings. "These systems are handling exterior shading, interior blinds and even seismic monitoring."

Analytics and fault detection and diagnostics capabilities are sometimes being offered within BAS/EMS applications themselves, and sometimes they are separate applications from companies that don't make BAS/EMS.

This has been a Building Operating Management Tip of the Day. Thanks for listening.

4.  Free Handbook Can Help With Tracking, Improving Building Performance

Today's tip from Building Operating Management: A new, free handbook can help facility managers track and improve building performance for energy and building systems.

The Building Performance Handbook offers advice on tools that can be used to monitor the energy and system performance of buildings. Performance tracking is aimed at continuous improvement of building systems and operations. There are four elements to performance tracking:
• Collect data and track the performance of the HVAC and lighting systems, plus energy use data.
• Identify performance problems.
• Diagnose problems and identify solutions.
• Fix problems and verify results.

To help facility managers build a business case, the handbook identifies a range of benefits from performance tracking, including enhanced occupant satisfaction, reduced energy costs and increased property values.

There are three basic tools for performance tracking: energy benchmarking, utility bill analysis and the building automation system, which can help to collect and analyze data, identify and solve problems, and track results. In addition, the handbook identifies advanced tools for energy and system tracking that include energy information systems, building automation systems, and fault detection and diagnostic tools. But none of those tools can be most effective unless the appropriate management framework is in place. The handbook identifies six elements of an effective management framework:
1. Allocate resources, including making time for staff to analyze and act on performance data and providing training.
2. Identify a team, which should include both top management and operating staff, along with a champion.
3. Set specific performance goals.
4. To motivate staff, consider incentives ranging from creating recognition programs to linking bonuses to energy performance.
5. Ensure accountability with well defined reporting policies.
6. Include performance tracking goals in contracts.

The handbook was written by PECI, a non-profit organization devoted to energy efficiency, and funded by the California Commissioning Collaborative.


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fault detection and diagnostics , energy efficiency , HVAC , BAS

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